SADANGA YOGA IS A SPIRITUAL YOGA LIFE TRAINING
BY GURU MADE SUMANTRA
Suffering is a classic problem or not something new for humans themselves. This suffering is not only experienced by humans, but broadly this suffering is experienced by all creatures in the virtual world, both mobile and non-movable. Even so, we should not be passionate about living this life, let alone as human beings who have the advantage of words, and ideal. This idep is what we use to find a way to end the suffering we experience as long as we live our lives, because every thing must have a way out. But in the spiritual journey of man to get out of the sea of repetitive suffering, birth and death (Punarbawa) humans often experience the road which path he should take? Which way is the best?
In Vrhaspati Tattwa, Adhi Yogi explained to Bagawan Vrhraspati that the traits of human nature were influenced by tri guna. In this teaching tri guna is part of the citta which is the mind. Citta is what determines that a person will be safe, wretched, sad or happy. Furthermore Vrhaspati tattwa explains that one can reach heaven, falling to hell or reaching moksa is due to the citta. From the meeting between purusha and pradhana, it means that after knowing and being known, the citta is born. Citta takes much awareness of the purusha which is considered as the origin, but because the seed has been influenced by unconsciousness, the unconsciousness in the citta is called tri guna, tri guna is an attribute or trait in the citta.
In Vrhaspati tattwa sloka 52 stated that there are three spiritual behaviors that humans must always strive to achieve happiness, namely:
1. Jnanabhyudireka: having perfect wisdom or knowledge.
2. Indria yoga clan: trying not to be fascinated by worldly pleasures by controlling the senses through yoga.
3. Trsna doksaya: not bound to good or bad deeds
Based on the description above it is clearly stated that the source of suffering experienced by humans is due to uncontrolled citta or mind. And to achieve happiness, we are obliged to carry out spiritual practice to control the mind, spiritual practice to control the mind gradually so that it is not bound by worldly pleasures is called yoga.
The book wrhaspati tattwa is a forced ejection of Adhi Yogi which contains samkya teachings and yoga. The part that teaches the formation of the universe and its contents follows the same teachings and the part that teaches the ethics of self-control takes the teachings of yoga. In etymology Vrhaspati tatwa comes from the words “whraspati” and “Tattwa”, the meaning of Vrhaspati is:
The name of a Bhagawan in Heaven. This is in accordance with what is found in Vrhaspati tattwa Sloka 1 which reads as follows:
Irikang kala bana sira wiku ring swarga
Bhagawad Whraspati ngaran ira
Sira ta maso mapuja di Bhatara.
At that time there was an ascetic in heaven named Vrhaspati, He came and worshiped Adhi Yogi
The truth meant here is the absolute truth about deity. So it can be concluded that Wrhaspati Tattwa means the teachings of truth or the nature of Dharma truth from Bhagawan Wraspati.
This teaching is translated in 74 Sanskrit sloka and Old Javanese. Vraspas tatwa is an ancient Javanese text that is realistic. In presenting his teachings, it is summarized in a mythology whose purpose is to make it easier to understand the teachings. Considering high philosophy or Tattwa teachings like this are difficult to understand.
Vrhaspati Tattwa as a teaching for Hindus in the Archipelago-stages of Sadangayoga consisting of Prathyahara, Dhyana, Pranayama, Dharana, Tarka, and Samadi, While the initial stages of Astangga Yoga are the moral foundation in Vrhaspati Tattwa called Dasa Sila. The Dasa Sila in Vrhaspati tatwa is not mentioned in the level of Yoga. This is motivated by the concept of thinking mansia nusantara that Dasa sila which is self-control of the first (Panca Yama Bratha) and self-control of both (Panca Nyama Bratha) must not be carried out by those who carry out Yoga, but by every adherent.
In Vrhaspati Tattwa God is called Parama Siwa or Iswara. He is Esa (Single). He is a Sadhu Sakti or has eight attributes of omnipotence called Asta Iswarya. His omnipotence is symbolized by an eight-leaf lotus called Padmasana. Padmasana is considered as a place of worship of God that is beyond us. The lotus with eight leaf symbolizes the eight corners of the wind, each of which is controlled by the power of God or the holy light of God or God. Among the gods there are called Nawa Sanga. The word Dewa Nawa Sanga is derived from the word Dewata which means gods, Sanga means direction.
Vrhaspati, the devotee in his teaching in general teaches that the highest reality is two, namely cetana and acetana. Cetana is an element of awareness, whereas acetana is an element of both of these unconsciousness which is subtle and is the source of everything that exists. There are three types of cetana, these three are called cetana telu.
1. Parama siwa tatwa, namely cetana who has the highest awareness (free from cyber influence).
2. Sadasiwa tatwa, namely cetana which has a medium level of consciousness (there is a virtual but still small influence).
3. Siwatman tatwa, namely cetana which has the lowest level of consciousness is also called atma or jiwatman.
In the form of Parama Siwa is not bound by the virtual at all, therefore he is called Nirguna Brahman, he is a lonely embodiment, pure pure, eternal without activity. In this transcendental form, the reality is called Nirguna Brahman, namely Brahman without attributes. This is accepted as one thing and not different, which remains static and dynamic and is an absolute principle that underlines the universe. “Brahman is the one whose words cannot be revealed, and which our mind cannot reach,”
Parama Siwa then began to be touched by the virtual, so at that time he began to be influenced by magic, use, and self-control which was the law of the omnipotence of Parama Siwa which fulfilled all his wishes brought about by lotus flowers. In this aspect, Parama Siwa is always everywhere, called Saguna Brahman. He is worshiped in the form of men and women. In the male aspect he was worshiped as Iswara, Parameswara, Paramaatma, Maheswara and Purusa. From the aspect of the woman he was called by the name of Ibu Mulia, Durga, and Kali.
At the level of siwatman tatwa, the magic, use, and swambhaw are reduced due to virtual influence. Because this virtual influence causes the original consciousness to diminish and even disappear and its nature changes to awidya, if siwatman consciousness is fragmented and then animates sentient beings including humans then it is called atma or jiwatman. Although atman is a part of God but because of the awidya shackles caused by virtual influence (pradhana tatwa), he is not aware of his origin. This is what causes atma in the heavenly and hell circles.
Yoga Meditation in Vrhaspati Tatwa
In Vrhaspati sloka 53, there are six branches of yoga, called sadangayoga. This Sadangayoga can also be said to be six levels of interrelated yoga, ignoring one level of yoga means destroying the yoga system and that means failing. The sound of the sloka in question is:
Nahan tang sadanga yoga ngaranya,
ika ta sadhana ning sang mahyun Umangguhakena sang hyang wisesa denjika,
pahawas tang hidepta,
haywa ta iweng-iweng denta ngrengosang hyang aji,
hana pratyahara yoga ngaranya, hana tarka yoga ngaranya,
hana pranayama yoga ngaranya,
hana dharanaya yoga ngaranya,
hana tarka ngaranya, hana samadhiyoga ngaranya,
nahan sadanga yoga ngaranya
Pratyahara (withdrawal), Dhyana (meditation), pranayama (breath control), dharana (holding), tarka (reflection), Samadhi (concentration), that is the sixth branch of yoga. Your mind must remain responsive: not only listen to the holy teachings. We must know prathyahara yoga, dhyanayoga, pranayama yoga, dharana yoga, tarka yoga, and samadhiyoga.
Assuming that knowing and understanding and practicing happiness correctly and in good harmony with karma vasana must have positive experience and benefits. To better understand this sadangayoga let us examine the Vrhaspati verses of the next devotion.
Pratyaharayoga, meditation controls the five senses.
In the sacred literature Vrhaspati tatwasloka 54 is described as follows:
Ikang indriya kabeh winatek sangkeng wisayanya,
ikang citta budhi manah tan wineh maparan-parana,
kinemitaken ing citta malilang, yeka pratyaharayoga ngaranya
Vrhaspati tatwa 54
Pratyahara (withdrawal) means the senses of the object, with effort and a calm mind. All sensual objects must be pulled from the object and where not allowed to move here and there. He must be guarded by a pure citta.
Pratyahara means withdrawal. What is drawn here is to draw the senses from the object of pleasure. Each senses has its own object of pleasure from its favorite object, for example the eye likes beautiful shapes and colors, and hates bad looks and colors. The sense of smell likes fragrant smells and hates foul odors and the other three senses have objects of pleasure. own. These senses need to be drawn from the object that he likes and which he hates and then is directed into himself.
With a controlled mind the concentration of the soul can be carried out properly, all desires for personal needs and the five senses must be controlled. Like a turtle that pulls its head and limbs, so that the soul becomes harmonious and balanced.
When someone faces a difficulty in his life, do not be dissolved in his sadness, otherwise when someone gets happiness, don’t be too praised. We accept the good things gladly, even we accept the bad things gladly. Such is the person who has the balance of the soul in the face of joy and sorrow. In addition to restraint of the five faculties, the retention of the soul needs to be done so that the soul can be united with the atman. With the unification of atman and soul, the omniscient will manifest themselves.
Dhayanayoga, meditation controls objek.
In the sacred literature Vrhaspati tatoka sloka 55 is described as follows:
Ikang jnana tan pangrwa-rwa, tatan wikara, enak heneng-heneng nira, umideng sad tan kawarana, yeka dhyanayoga ngaranya.
Vrhaspati tatwa 55
Dhyana (meditation) is yoga that continuously concentrates the mind on an unpaired form, does not change peace and does not move. Beautiful, unpaired knowledge does not change beautifully and calmly, remains stable, without such veil that is Dhyanayoga.
Dhyanayoga or meditation is a state of mind in which the mind is an absolute existence which does not take action. The atman is a source of unlimited power and wisdom in man and Dhyana or meditation is a tool to connect with the highest wisdom. Guru Made Sumantra explains that when the mind does nothing, the mind can enter the stage of super consciousness or turiya and realize unity with God. After a person reaches the turiya, a person can be said to have attained the free moksa cycle of birth and death. Anyone who can reach the turiya while still in the human body is called Jivanmukti.
Dhyana is not an action that can be done by a person, but a phenomenon that arises spontaneously and is not realized when the mind does not think or is in the stage of not taking action. Meditation and concentration can be distinguished by their uninterrupted nature. Concentration is like pouring water while Meditation is like pouring oil. Both of them will fall in the same place, but the fall of the water will not oil. Water has a tendency to split into water points, resulting in an unbiased flow.
Pranayamayoga, breath meditation to the light of the soul.
In the sacred literature Vrhaspati tatwa sloka 56 is described as follows:
Ikang sarwadwara kabeh yateka tutupane, mata, irung, tutuk, talinga,ikang vayu huwus inesep nguni rumuhun, yateka winetwaken maha waneng wunwunwn, kunang yapwan tan abhyasa ikang vayu mahawane ngkana, dai ya winetwaken mahawaneng irung ndan saka sadiki dening mawetwaken vayu, yateka pranayamayoga ngaranya.
Vrhaspati tatwa 56
Pranayama (breath breathing) is closing all the way out of the breath from the skull (at the time of death). All exits must be blindfolded, nose, mouth, ears. The breath that has been drawn is removed through the skull. If people don’t breathe this way, the breath will come out through the nose. But he only took a small part of the breath. This is what is calledpranayamayoga
Pranayama means a long and deep smooth breathing arrangement. The benefit of this role is to help eliminate unwanted thoughts. So it makes it easier for us to concentrate and meditate. The Rsi say short and regular breath will increase mental activity, which produces unwanted thoughts that will damage the mind.
In the sacred literature Vrhaspati tatwa sloka 57 is described as follows:
Hana ongkara sabda umunggwing hati, yateka dharanan, yapwan hilang ika nora karengo ri kala ning yoga yateka sivatma ngaranya, sunyawak bhatara siva yan mangkana yeka dharanayoga ngaranya.
Vrhaspati tatwa 57
Omkara which is the nature of God must be placed in a heart full of God. Because Omkara is held continuously, it is called “holding” dhrana. The voice of omkara is held in the heart. One must focus on him. When it disappears and is not heard when yoga is called Sivatman. In such circumstances the Master is said to be empty. This is dharanayoga.
Dharanayoga means mastering the senses under supervision of the ‘mind’ and concentrating the mind on the object of meditation.
In the sacred literature Vrhaspati tatoka sloka 58 is described as follows:
Kadi akasa rakwa sang hyang paramartha, ndan ta palenanira lawan akasa, tan han sabda ri sira, ya ta kalingan ing paramartha,papada nira lawan awing-awang malilang juga, yeka tarka yoga ngaranya.
Vrhaspati tatwasloka 58
Tarka (contemplation) is constantly focusing on Him whose form is very subtle, permanent and calm and quiet.
You must know that Paramartha is very smooth. But there is also a difference with the subtle one, namely that paramartha is silent. That is paramartha’s explanation that can be likened to akasa. He is holy. That is what is called tarka yoga.
Ikang jnana tanpopeksa, tan panggalpane, tan hana kaharep nira, tan han sinadhyanira, alilang tan kawaranan juga, tatan pakahilang, tatan pawasta ikang cetana, apan mari muhidep sira ikang sarira, luput saking catur kalpana.Catur kalpana ngaranya, wruh lawan kinaweruhan, pangawruh lawan nahan yang caturkalpana ngaranya, ika ta kabeh tan hana ri sang yogisvara yateka Samadhi ngaranya. Nahan yang sadanga yoga ngaranya, pinaka jnana sang pandita matangyang kapangih sang hyang visesa, ika kayogiswaran mangkana, yateka karaksan ring dasasila.
Vrhaspati tatwa 54
Samadhi (concentration) is constantly contemplating on Him as absolute, unexplained, lustless, calm, unchanging and without characteristics. Jnana (knowledge) is absolute, inexplicable, lustless, aimless, pure, uncovered, and not destroyed. This Cetana does not aim. He has no physical awareness. He is free from kalpana chess. Chess kalpana means knowledge and known, means to know and people who know. That is the four palms. None of this is in Yogisvara. This is what is called samadhiyoga. This sadangayoga must be owned by a yogi. Thus people will reach visesa. This yogisvara nature must be supported by the ten virtues.
Samadhi is the last stage of yoga, both the stages according to Wrhasapati Tattwadad in Sadanggayoga. Samadhi is “union with God”. In a Samadhi who is aware that one will attain super-natural power (called siddhi) with the power of yoga practice.
Samadhi super consciousness in general there are two types: Salvikalpa Samadhidan Nirvikalpa Samadhi. Salvikalpa means “separate” and Nirvikalpa means there is no separation. In salvikalpa Samadhi worshipers maintain a separate identity (subject-object relationship) from God. In Nirvikalpa Samadhi the subject-object relationship ends and a devotee becomes one with God.
the book Wrhaspati Tattwasloka 53 as follows:
Sedangga yoga ucyate
Wrhaspati Tattwa sloka 53
Thus sadangga yoga is the name, That is the advice of people who want to find Sang Hyang Wisesa, let the light be black, do not be frantic by you hearing this teaching. That is the name sadangga yoga.
What must be known by someone to be able to control themselves is to realize what the purpose of life is born as a human being. From so many living creatures that were born as human beings, not all of them are able to do good. The merging of bad deeds into good deeds is also a benefit of being human. Let someone not be sad even though it is not prosperous to be a human being, it should encourage you because in fact it is very difficult that transforms into a human being. As a human being is a phala and because it is an opportunity for humans to be able to improve themselves by fusing or defeating bad deeds by doing good always. In the teachings of life itself is samsara (misery) which must be endorsed by everyone to end it, otherwise life as a human being is phala because that life he will be able to endeavor, free himself from suffering as a result of birth compared to other creatures. Because being human is very important too because he can help himself from the state of samsara by means of good karma, thus the privilege of being human.
People who do not succeed in doing dharma, artha and kama and moksa, love him properly but have no use in this life, the person who is named is the person who only cares for his body, which is then annexed by death. By training Dhyana yoga, pranayama yoga, dharana yoga and Samadhiyoga, peace of mind, peace in this life and in the hereafter will be realized. There is ong karasabda the name of the place in the heart, that is to be held firmly. If it disappears, it’s no longer heard when doing yoga, that’s the name Siwatman. At that time the Lord is a master. If we can do centralized concentration on successful sensory control.
The atmosphere described above is an atmosphere that is extraordinarily calm free from worldly stimuli because of the ability to control oneself or extraordinary thoughts. After Pratyahara, Dhyana, pranayama, dharana, tarka, Samadhi can be done then explained in the book Wrhaspati the ethics of yoga. ethics in the book Wrhaspati tattwa is not referred to as Yama and Nyama but is called the Dasa Sila or the ten characteristics of wisdom. The composition of Yama and Nyama in the book of Thraspati tattwa is contained in sloka 60 and sloka 61 as follows:
In the sacred literature Vrhaspati tatwa sloka 60 is described as follows:
Ahimsa brahmacayanca,Satyam avyaharikam,
Astainyamiti pancaite, Yama rudrena bhasitah
Wrhaspati Tattwa sloka 60
Ahimsa his name did not kill, brahmacari his name did not have sex, Satya his name did not lie, avyaharika his name did not sell, did not commit sin because of his intelligence, Asteya his name did not take the property of others if not approved by both parties. Thus the arrangement of Yama in the book Wrhaspati tattwa.
In the sacred literature Vrhaspati tatoka sloka 61 is described as follows:
Akrodha gurususrusa, Sauca aharalagawan,
Apramadasca Pancaite, Niyama Parikertitah
Wrhaspati Tattwa sloka 60
Akrodha’s name was not angry, his name was devoted to the teacher, always doing japa, cleaning the body, Aharalagawa did not overeat, Apramada his name was not negligent.
Thus the arrangement of Nyama in the book Wrhaspati tattwa.
Controlling the mind in the context of yoga is the most important thing, what is meant by controlling in the context of yoga means that the amuter said Pinahayu “reverses consciousness correctly” according to Mpu Kanwa. This means that awareness that previously tended to lead out and like being outside is awareness that tends to be trapped because it is often based on false thinking. Therefore, that awareness needs to be reversed. That is to say the mind should be based on true knowledge, the mind is directed into the self, this can be done by following the yoga discipline.
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